Springer International Publishing | June 20, 2023
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has diverse applications in modern health care. Deep learning (DL) systems in ophthalmology have been used to predict and classify several ocular pathologies. In recent years, researchers expanded the use of DL to predict systemic diseases and biomarkers from retinal images. In this relatively new field, we review the reasons why the eye is well suited for such applications and address practical considerations in building AI systems with ocular images. This chapter will discuss applications of ocular imaging in the prediction of demographic parameters, body composition factors and diseases of the cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, endocrine, renal and hepatobiliary systems. We examine the range of systemic factors studied from ocular imaging in current literature and discuss areas of future research, while acknowledging the limitations that AI systems in ocular imaging present.