Eye and Vision, 06 May 2024



Artificial intelligence (AI) that utilizes deep learning (DL) has potential for systemic disease prediction using retinal imaging. The retina’s unique features enable non-invasive visualization of the central nervous system and microvascular circulation, aiding early detection and personalized treatment plans for personalized care. This review explores the value of retinal assessment, AI-based retinal biomarkers, and the importance of longitudinal prediction models in personalized care.

Main text

This narrative review extensively surveys the literature for relevant studies in PubMed and Google Scholar, investigating the application of AI-based retina biomarkers in predicting systemic diseases using retinal fundus photography. The study settings, sample sizes, utilized AI models and corresponding results were extracted and analysed.

This review highlights the substantial potential of AI-based retinal biomarkers in predicting neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and chronic kidney diseases. Notably, DL algorithms have demonstrated effectiveness in identifying retinal image features associated with cognitive decline, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, longitudinal prediction models leveraging retinal images have shown potential in continuous disease risk assessment and early detection. AI-based retinal biomarkers are non-invasive, accurate, and efficient for disease forecasting and personalized care.


AI-based retinal imaging hold promise in transforming primary care and systemic disease management. Together, the retina’s unique features and the power of AI enable early detection, risk stratification, and help revolutionizing disease management plans. However, to fully realize the potential of AI in this domain, further research and validation in real-world settings are essential.